What is Annexation under International Law?

By definition the word annexation is to add to one’s own territory by appropriation. Under international law, it is a unilateral act by one State as to territory of another State, which is why it is unlawful. According to The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts:

The international law of belligerent occupation must therefore be understood as meaning that the occupying power is not sovereign, but exercises provisional and temporary control over foreign territory. The legal situation of the territory can be altered only through a peace treaty or deballatio. International law does not permit annexation of territory of another State.

What is lawful under international law is cession whereby the ceding State transfers its territory to the acquiring State by a treaty. According to Professor Oppenheim:

Cession of State territory is the transfer of sovereignty over State territory by the owner-State to another State and the only form in which a cession can be effected is an agreement embodied in a treaty between the ceding and the acquiring State.

American examples of ceded lands are the 1807 Louisiana Purchase where France ceded its territory west of the Mississippi river to the United States and 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo where Mexico transferred its territory north of the Rio Grande river to the United States as part of a peace treaty.

The latest example of an unlawful annexation is when Russia annexed Crimea after its invasion in 2014. Ukraine, which Crimea is a part of its territory, did not cede its territory to Russia by a treaty. Under international law, the annexation of Crimea is unlawful. There is no reason to say unlawful about the Russian annexation because it is inherently unlawful under international law.

4 thoughts on “What is Annexation under International Law?

  1. I am sorry about the current situation in Ukraine, however I don’t think it belongs here to the website of the Hawaiian Kingdom, because it gives the impression that even the Hawaiian Kingdom is taking the side of the West that is providing weapons to Ukraine with total disregard of lives that could be saved through peace treaties. The situation is the following: Due to discriminations by the Ukrainians against the Russians, Crimean Tatars and other minorities of their population, in 2014 the Republic of Crimea (which was earlier the Crimean Autonomous Republic), the Lugansk and Donetsk People’s Republics declared themselves independent just like 108 states territories, colonies, or protectorates around the world since 1945. They all satisfied international laws and all provisions thereof set forth in the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, adopted in 1933, and they became recognized by three countries (neither the Convention nor the UN defined how many states or countries have to recognize them), then they signed a non-aggression agreement and/or mutual defense treaty with Russia. Subsequently they held plebiscites and according to the overwhelming majority votes they applied to the Russian Federation for their cession to Russia, which is clear in the Russian language original application (Not annexation as the Western propaganda claims it!). The Duma voted for it, the Constitutional Court approved it, thus they officially became part of the Russian Federation. It is true that Ukraine does not like it, but that was the same with the other 108 newly independent states in relation to the countries from where they seceded.

  2. Plus the Kingdom of Hawaii was never annexed by America or anybody else. Plus the Kingdom of Hawaii associated with a United Nations. Samoa treaty with the Kingdom of Hawaii is voided due to they did not take care of Hawaii to help them in the situation with America to taking Kingdom of Hawaii with a fake annexation. Also I noticed that Samoa think they can put their Country in the Kingdom of Hawaii. Have you seen them putting up tents and thinking they can put their Chiefs over here and the Kingdom of Hawaii. We need to deport these people. Also we need to deport the Micronesians they think they belong here also putting their Chiefs here. Putting other countries and their Chiefs in the Kingdom of Hawaii is illegal. Plus Micronesia does not have a treaty with the Kingdom of Hawaii and also Vietnam has no treaty. Why I care is cuz my husband has a third great grandfather that was married to kalakaua’s wife before she married the king who became king. Then also my husband’s third great grandfather was the third in line to the throne did you know this? Cuz it’s just like America the President, the Vice President then the Speaker of the House. My husband’s third great grandfather ( Royal by blood full blood Hawaiian) was the 3rd in line to the throne of Kingdom of Hawaii. And not kalakaua sister. Nobody thought about that when they brought into the issue. Would my husband now be the king of Hawaii? My husband is half Hawaiian/ half Samoan. Born in the Kingdom of Hawaii.

  3. KINGDOM of HAWAII, ruled by Kamehameha 1ST, PAIEA, as King of Hawaii Island was faced with many turmoil he then asked Great Britain for Protection it was granted and Paiea, by word of mouth became a British Subject, TEMPORARILY, though his uhane still remained a Hawaiian Subject, until his departure.[notice the difference, Kingdom of Hawaii from Hawaiian Kingdom],
    Many EVENTS had taken place… by word of mouth, then, eventally, put into literacy.
    HAWAIIAN KINGDOM, consist of the remaining Hawaiian Islands our Hawaiian Kingdom ruled by Kamehameha 3RD, KAUIKEAOULI, followed
    by the remaining Kamehameha’s and finally a “light” directed to the Kalakaua Dynasty, the chosen female was selected, our QUEEN LILI’UOKALANI. ONIPA’A KAKOU, Mahalo and God Bless EVERYONE the OHANA KUPAU, Pukuilua, Hana 2023

  4. Never any treaty… Just taken via an Act of Congress. Grr. 🙁 Since “fraud vitiates EVERYTHING” it’s NEVER to late to undo what was unlawfully done! Also wanted to mention how nefarious freemasonry wiggled its way into Hawaii, via the royals inc marriages — so the exploiting *freemason* businessmen could entangle & exploit. Dole was ‘gifted’ 1st governor title soon after. A few notable places, inc. the palace, have freemason cornerstones that signify allegiance to that brotherhood, which is known to be QUITE nefarious at the 33 degree level. There was mention on one local freemason site that the King (a few of them) would host freemason ceremonies in the attic.
    No more suppressing TRUTHS & JUSTICE. Return power back to Hawaii people! <3

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