On March 25, 1879, a Treaty was signed between Germany and the Hawaiian Kingdom in Berlin and thereafter ratified by both governments and exchanged. Article II of this treaty provides:
“the subjects and citizens of the two High Contracting Parties may remain and reside in any part of said territories respectively and shall receive and enjoy full and perfect protection for their persons and property. They shall have free and easy access to the courts of justice, provided by law, in pursuit and defense of their rights, and they shall be at liberty to choose and employ lawyers, advocates or agents to pursue or defend their rights before such courts of justice; and they shall enjoy in this respect all the rights and privileges as native subjects or citizens.”
Neither Germany nor the Hawaiian Kingdom gave notice to the other of its intention to terminate this treaty in accordance with the terms of Article XXVI of the 1879 Treaty. Therefore, this treaty is still in full force and continues to have legal effect to date.